Birth of Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin was the 2nd ruler of the Khilji dynasty. Khilji Alauddin also called (Real Name) Ali Gurshasp alias Juna Khan Khilji. According to the 16th-17th century chronicler, “Haji-ud-Dabir Alauddin” was born in Kalat Zabul Province, Afghanistan.
Alauddin Khilji In Hindi
Alauddin khilajee dilli saltanat ke khilajee vansh ka doosara shaasak tha aur usane apana shaasan dakshin bhaarat ke madurai tak phaila diya tha. Kaha jaata hai ki usake baad koee bhee saamraajy sthaapit nahin kar paaya tha. Aaie jaanate hain khilajee ke baare mein jo apanee veerata ke saath pyaar karata tha, ishk ke lie bhee jaana jaata tha.
The Khalji empire was a dynasty of middle ages India. It ruled Delhi from 1290-1320 AD. Alauddin’s commander Malik Kafur was captured in the south in 1308, overthrew the Hoysala dynasty south of the Krishna River, and took Madurai to the far south.
Zabul Province Afghanistan
Alauddin Khilji was an imperialist leader who aggressively expanded the realm to Madurai in South India. Which is said to have been ruled by a leader not as prominent as Khilji for the following 300 years. Khilji is taken into consideration as one of the most powerful leaders of the Khilji dynasty. Due to his ambition, he got the title of “Sikandar-e-Sunny,” which means “Second Alexander.” He banned liquor altogether during his reign.
Married to His Uncle’s Girl
Alauddin Khilji’s father’s name was Shihabuddin Masood. His uncle Jalaluddin Khilji was the first ruler of the Khilji dynasty. After Khilji’s father’s death, his uncle Jalaluddin raised Alauddin like his son and got his daughter married as well. Still, he was not happy to marry Jalaluddin’s daughter because Jalaluddin’s wife had become a princess after becoming Sultan, and there was sudden pride in his behavior.
Rebellion Against His Uncle Jalaluddin
In the year 1291, the Governor of Kara Malik Chhajju revolted in the Sultan’s kingdom. Alauddin handled this problem very well, after which he was made the Mukti (Governor) of Kara. Malik Chhajju considered Jalaluddin an inadequate ruler and provoked Alauddin to usurp the throne of Delhi. Betraying Jalaluddin was not an easy task, as it required a large army and money for weapons. To meet the shortage of funds in this scheme, Alauddin started plundering the surrounding Hindu kingdoms.
In the year 1293, Alauddin plundered Bhilsa (a wealthy city in the Parmar state of Malwa), and to win the trust of the Sultan, Alauddin handed over the real booty to Jalaluddin. Pleased to this, Jalaluddin appointed him Ariz-i Mamlik (war commander) and gave him other privileges such as raising more revenue to strengthen the army.
After the success of the plunder in Bhilsa, Alauddin made his subsequent plunder in Devagiri (which was the capital of the southern Yadav kingdom in the Deccan region) in 1296, from there he took a vast quantity including gems, precious metals, silk products, horses, elephants, and slaves—robbed of wealth. Khilji composed a letter to Jalaluddin and apologized for not returning to Delhi with the loot. Alauddin wrote a letter to Jalaluddin and apologized for not returning to Delhi with the loot. After this, Jalaluddin decided to come to Kara personally to meet Alauddin. While he was on his way to Kara, he (Jalaluddin) decided to cross the Ganges river with a small contingent of about 1,000 soldiers.
Alauddin Khilji Became Sultan By Killing His Uncle
On 20 July 1296, when Jalaluddin met Alauddin on the banks of the Ganges river, Alauddin stabbed Jalaluddin with a knife on his back and, after his death, declared himself the new Sultan of Delhi. In July 1296, Kara, Alauddin formally declared himself the new Sultan as the title of ‘Alauddin ud-Din Muhammad Shah-Sultan.’ Alauddin ordered his officers to recruit as many soldiers as possible and present him (Alauddin) as a benevolent sultan. He then distributed five mana (about 35 kg) of gold along with his crown in Kara. Due to heavy rains and flooding in the rivers, he left for Delhi. On 21 October 1296, Alauddin formally declared himself the Sultan of Delhi.
Alauddin Khilji Empire Expansion
Alauddin started expanding the boundaries of his kingdom as soon as he sat on the throne of Delhi. Khilji Alauddin was a very ambitious king, and he called himself the second Alexander. He likewise assumed the title of “Sikandar-e-Sani.”. On the day of 21 October, in the year 1296, the Mughal ruler Khilji took the throne of Delhi. Alauddin was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and extended his rule to Madurai in South India. It is said that no ruler could establish such an empire after that. Let’s know about Khilji, who was also known for his heroic love, love.
Khilji was the nephew and son of Jalaluddin Khilji, the creator of the Khilji empire. Khilji killed his uncle Jalaluddin in the year 1296 to acquire the kingdom and obtained his crowning at Lal Mahal in Balban, Delhi.
Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
Mubarak Shah was the first ruler of Delhi who declared himself the Khalifa and took Albasic Billah. The early years of this new ruler were successful, and he canceled the harsh orders of his father. Political prisoners were freed.
Fateh On Gujarat
In 1298 AD, Alauddin sent 14 thousand horse riders and 20 thousand foot soldiers under the leadership of Nusrat Khan to conquer Gujarat. The battle between Raja Karna of Beghal and the Khilji army near Ahmedabad. Raja Karna was defeated and escaped with his daughter Deval Devi came to Ramachandra Dev, Devagiri. Kamala Devi, the wife of King Karna, was sent to Alauddin. Alauddin forcibly converted Kamala Devi and married her, and sent her to the royal harem. During the conquest of Gujarat, Nusrat Khan had committed a terrible slaughter and broke many significant temples. Of these, the Somnath temple in Gujarat is the most prominent.
Fateh At Jaisalmer
Sultan Khilji defeated the ruler of Jaisalmer, Duda, and his ally Tilak Singh in 1299 AD, after the Jaisalmer ruler snatched a few horses from Alauddin Khilji’s army and conquered Jaisalmer.
Alauddin Khilji And Padmavati
The attack on the Chittor fort was one of the most prominent of the invasions made during the reign of Alauddin Khilji. Since the fort of Chittor was strategically located in a very safe place. Therefore Alauddin attacked Chittor and defeated Maharaja Ratan Singh. However, the cause of this entire attack is also said to be the beauty of Rani Padmavati, on which Alauddin was fascinated. Finally, on 28 January 1303 AD, the Sultan succeeded in taking control of the fort of Chittor.
Rana Ratan Singh was martyred in the war, and his wife Rani Padmavati committed Jauhar with other women. It is a matter of discussion. Most historians consider Padmavati a fictional character. It is also said that the Sultan killed about 30,000 Rajput heroes after taking possession of the fort.
Fateh All Over North India
In North India, the Khilji army won Jaisalmer in 1299 AD, while in 1301 AD, Ranthambore, in 1305-1308 AD, won Malwa and in 1304 at Jalore. After the conquest of North India, Alauddin turned to South India.
Alauddin Khilji’s Empire Expansion In South India
The main credit for Alauddin’s south victory goes to Malik Kafur. Malik Kafur led all the conquests of South India.
In 1306 AD, Alauddin sent a large army under Malik Kafur to attack King Ramachandra of Devagiri. King Ramachandra surrendered after the war.
When Malik Kafur reached Warangal in Telangana state in 1310 AD, King Rudra Dev made his gold idol and put a gold chain around his neck and sent it to Malik Kafur as a surrender, along with 100 elephants, 700 horses, immense wealth, and Alauddin accepted the subjugation of Khilji with the promise of paying an annual tax.
After Warangal, in 1311 AD, Malik Kafur forced the surrender of Veer Ballal III, the ruler of Hoysala, Karnataka. Malik Kafur won a large part of South India and carried out slaughtering or plundering. He also broke many famous temples (Rameswaram) of India.
Alauddin defeated the Mongols in the fights of Jalandhar (1298 ), Kili (1299 ), Amroha (1305 ), and Ravi (1306 ). When one of the Mongol soldiers revolted, Alauddin’s administration severely punished the rebels, killing their families and their children in front of their mothers.
Around August 1303, the Mongols invaded Delhi yet again, but due to lack of adequate preparation, Alauddin had to take refuge in the under-constructionSiri Fort’. The Mongol invasion in the year 1303 forced Alauddin to take some drastic measures in his administration so that such attacks would not recur. He increased military presence on the Mongol routes of India and strengthened the fort’s defenses. He implemented a series of economic reforms to keep the military strong and to ensure adequate revenue flow.
In December 1305, the Mongols invaded India again. Alauddin’s solid cavalry led by Malik Nayak also beat the Mongols at the Fight of Amroha.
In the court of Ala-ud-din, high-class scholars such as Amir Khusro and Hassan Nizami were patronized. In architecture, Alauddin built circular ‘Alai Darwaza’ and ‘Kushka-e-Shikar.’ The ‘Alai Darwaza’ made by him is considered a masterpiece of early Turkish art. According to the 16th-century historian Firishta, the ends (mundiyo) of more than 8000 Mongols were used by Alauddin to establish the Siri Fort.
Salient Features Of Alauddin Khilji Rule
Alauddin’s administration is known for various socio-economic reforms. The most important of which is agrarian reform. A robust and efficient revenue administration system was established, a large number of collectors, accountants, and agents were hired to arrange the social system. Under his administration, officers were paid well. Alauddin imposed severe punishments for corrupt officials.
Alauddin’s administration is also known for its market reforms and price controls. He established three separate markets in Delhi – one for cereals, one for cloth, and another for daily use items such as ghee, oil, and sugar, and the third market was for horses, cattle, and slaves. Alauddin fixed the prices of the goods according to their price.
Another essential feature of Alauddin’s administration was the tax system. According to The Cambridge Economic History of India, the taxation system of Alauddin Khilji was an institution that lasted the longest, and its influence was seen even in the nineteenth or twentieth century. He imposed four types of taxes on non-Muslims – Jaziya (election tax), Kharaj (land tax), Ghari (house tax), and Charah (pasture tax).
According to historian Ziauddin Barani, Alauddin also thought of establishing a new religion.
He abolished the Iqta system introduced by Iltutmish and paid cash in salaries to the soldiers.
He strengthened the espionage system to enhance the system of governance during his reign. Alauddin was the first Sultan of Delhi who established a large army.
He also established a food and textile market. He also found divisions of Diwan-i-Riyasat and Shahna-e-Mandi, which were related to controlling the market.
Alauddin established a detective department where the intelligence officers were called “Buried,” and the detectives were “Munhin.”
Some historians have described him as hermaphroditic. According to him, Alauddin Malik was very attracted to Kafur. He bought as a slave and later promoted him (Malik Kafur) as his most loyal officer. However, there is no concrete evidence of this.
Alauddin Khilji Death Reason
In the last four-five years of his rule, Alauddin Khilji’s power to understand and thinking was weakened. During these years, the entire command of governance came into the hands of Malik Kafur. It is said that Malik Kafur killed Alauddin Khilji.
Alauddin Khilji Tomb
However, this is also confirmed by the fact that Malik Kafur blinded two of his sons after Khilji’s death and ruled the throne of Khalji’s three-year-old son Shahabuddin himself.
Alauddin Khilji And The Film World
There was a lot of opposition to Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s historical film ‘Padmavati.’ The film stars Deepika Padukone (Padmavati), Shahid Kapoor (Rana Ratan Singh), and Ranveer Singh (Sultan Alauddin Khilji) in the lead roles. This is not the first time that a film has been made about Rani Padmavati. Before that, many films have been made in Hindi and Tamil. Apart from this, the story of Rani Padmavati was also shown in ‘Bharat Ek Khoj,’ a show on Doordarshan.
Hindi film “Maharani Padmavati” (1964)
In the year 1964, the first Hindi film, ‘Maharani Padmavati,’ was made. The director of this film was Jaswant Jhaveri. In this film, Anita Guha plays Rani Padmavati, and at the end of the film, Khilji assumes Padmavati as her sister. However, it is shown in the movie that Malik Kafur instigated Khilji. So that he can become the ruler of Delhi. At the end of the film, Khilji says, “Hamari Yeh Fatah is the biggest defeat in history,” and Rani Padmavati joins Johar at the end of the film.